These include all hybrids – the number of those registered is already in the hundreds – resulting from crosses of L. biilbifenwi, L. dauricum, L. wilsonii, L. concolor, L. x macuhtum, L. x hollandicum, L. philadelphicum, L. pumilum, L. atnabile, L. davidii, L. leichtlinii var. maximowiczii, L. tigrinum, L. cemuum, and L. callosum.
The number of possible genctical combinations within this breeding category is almost countless. With the exceptions of the European L. bulbiferum and the American saucer-shaped L. philadelphicum, they consist entirely of lilies of Asiatic origin, with either Turk’s Cap or saucer-shaped. Apart from L. ccrmuiin, the blooms of all these lilies contain carotenoids.
The first in the field of lily hybridizing, about 250 years ago, may have been the Japanese gardeners, with L. x ekgans hybrids (L. x maciilatum), of which there are 150 cultivars. Cytological examination has established the wild L. dauricum and L. macuhtum as parents (Shimizu, NALS-LYB 1960). At the same time, Fritz Bcrckmiiller of Hamburg (1927) suspected, and also tried to prove experimentally, that L. maculatum is a hybrid of L. concolor and L. dauricum.
At the time of writing, the following L. niaculatum forms and clones are in commerce:
L. x maculatuni Alice Wilson: pure lemon-yellow with dark-red speckles, 1877 L. x maculatum Alutaceum: a dwarf type with large, apricot-coloured flowers, known as Kikak L. x nmeulatuin Atrosangtiineum: dark-red and black-spotted L. x niaculatum Aureum: black-spotted, orange-yellow flowers L. x niacnlatum Anranticuni: unspotted, deep-orange flowers L. x niaculatum Batemanniae: unspotted, apricot-coloured blooms withup to 3 feet 3 inches high L. x maculatnm Bicolor: shiny orange flowers with fire-red petal margins L. x maculatum Diadem: also known as Leonard Joerg, apricot with yellow median band, late-flowering, used by Jan de GraafF in the breeding of Mideentury hyrids L. x maculatuni Mahogany: very broad flower petals, deep red-brown to mahogany-red; progeny inherits dark colour easily L. x maculatnm Sanguineitm: black-spotted, deep-red blooms L. x macnlatnm Vennstiwi: pure apricot without spotting L. x niaculatum Wallacei: imported in 1876 from Japan, apricot-pink, rises up to 27 inches, flowers in August; should be planted in sandy soils and well watered
Sicbold imported several kinds of Japanese lilies into Holland around 1830. The London gardener Henry Groom is probably responsible for L. x hollandicum, for he obtained many dark flower colours from crosses he made from 1840 to 1853 between L. bulbiferum and L. atr0-sanguineum (L. x maculatum Atrosanguineum).
The best-known of the many L. x hollandicum varieties now available are:
Apricot: with delicate apricot-coloured flowers, umbellar Darkest of All: dark-red, mahogany-red with broad flower petals
Erectum: carmine-scarlet with some orange, 2 feet tall Golden Fleece: very strong, light apricot-yellow, large blooms Invincible: large, dark-orange coloured flowers with scarlet tips, 2-3feet tall Orange King: large umbellate inflorescence, orange centres, dark-orange petal margins Refulgence: orange-scarlet, 27 inches long Splendid: cinnabar with orange, without spots, 27 inches tall Vermilion Brilliant: carminc-blood-red, umbellar, vigorous, 16 inches Coolhurst hybrids: glowing orange-red, bred in England in
Jan de Graaff’s Rainbow hybrids must also be included in this category, as must the Golden Chalice hybrids which were selected from them.
Miss Isabella Preston, of Ottawa, must be given a great deal of credit for first working with this group of lilies during the 1920s and 1930s and for first bringing L. davidii var. wilhnottiae into the field of hybridization. She created the well-known varieties Lillian Cunimings and Brenda Watts-two of her famous Stenographer lilies of(L. x dauricum x L. x niaculatitni) x L. davidii var. ivillmottiae parentage. They are pretty, saucer-shaped blooms arranged in rich racemose inflorescence; part nodding, part outward-facing; some more, others less recurved; and shaded from orange-red to scarlet.
The Fighter lilies came into being during the Second World War and were named after various famous aircraft – Spitfire, Hurricane, Mosquito, etc. These erect-flowering saucer lilies, in a wide variety of red shades, aroused considerable interest and discussion at the time, as did the yellow-flowered Coronation and Sovereign.
F. L. Skinner introduced L. x scottiae in 1931, produced from L. davidii var. willnwttiae x L. x inaciilatum Mahogany. It is an orange-yellow, outward-facing saucer lily much used as a parent because of its ability to pass the mahogany-red colour of Mahogany to its progeny.
The first diploid Tigrinum hybrids unlike the crosses with the triploid Tigrinum, were fertile, and originated at the Boyce Thomson Institute, New York, during 1940. The parentage of these saucer-shaped, recurved hybrids, called Unibtig, is L. tigrinnm var. diploid and L. x hollandicnm.
The year 1934 saw the foundation of the Jan de Graaff Oregon bulb farms, an offshoot from the Dutch parent company which at the time was solely interested in the production of tulips, narcissi, and bulbous irises. Jan de GraafFwas, however, fascinated by lilies; not satisfied with just collecting them, he started to breed and select. The instinct of the sure and born breeder drove him on to develop a large, comprehensive and successful breeding programme which now, consolidated with American farming techniques, provides I million bulbs annually – or, in other words, 80 per cent of the world’s lily production.
Jan de Graafi selected his excellently shaped, multi-coloured, erect-flowering, saucer-shaped Rainbow hybrids from a rich supply of erect-flowering crosses obtained brom L. x maculatum, L. x hollandiann, and L. dawicum. The Rainbow hybrids come in every colour tone from yellow to orange and red. A further selection of the golden-yellow types led to the sparsely spotted Golden Chalice hybrids. All these lilies are particularly suitable for borders, forcing, and.
Jan de Graaft produced the Fiesta hybrids from crosses first made by Dr Abel, of New York, between L. davidii x L. leichtlinii hybrids, and crossing L. anmbile and the yellow-flowering L. awnbile var. Interna into it.
The Fiesta hybrids combine the strong, erect growing habit of L. davidii with gay colours ranging from golden-yellow to orange, red, and chestnut-brown. The pure-yellow Citronella, ruby-red Burgundy and bronze Bronzino strains have all been selected from Fiesta hybrids. Amber Gold, with good inflorescence; Ebony, with large, dark copper-bronze flowers; Fury, with startlingly red blooms – all are clones and all commercially available.
Jan de GraafF introduced more than a dozen named clones as Mid-century hybrids during 1949; although they originate essentially from saucer-shaped lilies and L. tigrimim, their breeding is involved and follows these lines:
L. bulbiferum x L. dauricum L. concolor x L. dauricum
L. x hollaitdicum x L. Ugrinum L. x maculatum
L. x Umbtig L. x Alice Wilson
L. x Mideentury hybrids
The exceptionally strong, nearly table-high Midcentury hybrids have umbellate to racemose inflorescences with wide-open, erect or outward-facing, saucer-shaped flowers in a range of colours from pale-yellow to dark-red. Enchantment was introduced first, and is perhaps the best-known, because of its almost luminous nasturtium-red colour, but Harmony, Joan Evans, and Valencia soon followed; later came the pure-yellow varieties such as Croesus, Destiny, Prosperity, and the red to dark-red Cinnabar, Sun spot, Sunstar, Tabasco and Paprika. These strongly coloured, prolifically flowering lilies add interest to even the most magnificent gardens, thrive in every type of soil and in any temperate climate, and multiply well – some produce new bulbs by division, others produce axil bulbils.
Other North American and Canadian breeders have worked in a similar direction. F. L. Skinner, of Dropmore, Manitoba, crossed the North American saucer lily L. philadelphicum with the Asiatic L. dauricum and proved that a relationship existed between the two varieties, although they were parted by an ocean. Saffron-yellow The Duchess is a L. amabile x L. x maculatum cross, blood-red Dunkirk a Davidii cross, and Lemon Lady a lemon-yellow Davidii cross. Evening Star has a remarkable parentage – L. concolor x L. callosum – a cross very seldom made.
The three very good, dark-red hybrids – Byams Red Giant, Byams Ruby and Dark Eyes – bred by Percy Byam, of Toronto, are in the same class.
Professor Taylor, of Guelph, Ontario, is known for his early introduction of Cardinal, a L. tigrinum x L. amabile cross, in addition to the golden-yellow Goldcrest, L. philadelphicum x L. pumilum.
Skyrocket was introduced by Dr E. F. Palmer, of Vincland Station, Ontario, in 1945 – a vigorous, tall-growing cross between L. davidii and Lillian Cummings. Equally vigorous and of the same good parent material are his Redbird and Valiant, obtained from L. bulbiferum var. croceum x L. x maculatum Mahogany x L. tigrinum. All three are medium-red and heavily spotted. Other well-known Palmer hybrids are red-flowered Samarkand, and King William.
The Stones’ Lemon Yellow hybrids originate from L. tigrinum var. favijlorum and are the result of Ralph Warner’s work, which the
American lily enthusiast David Stone is continuing. He has produced two clones: the self-coloured, orange-red, unspotted Connecticut Yankee; and the related lemon-yellow Nutmegger. Both are absolutely hardy, vigorous Tigrinum hybrids with a rich stand of flowers.
The saucer lily Nubian is remarkable for its black-red colour; it came from the PrestonEdna Keau, which was first introduced in 1950 by Percy Wright, of Saskatoon, Canada.
Dr S. M. Emsweller, of the Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, obtained several vigorous saucer lilies from a cross between Breuda Watts and a yellow Hollandicum seedling – yellowish, cognac-coloured Brandy wine; golden-yellow and tall-growing Cavalier; somewhat weaker canary-yellow Mega; pepper-red Mountaineer. More vigorous and larger-bloomed lilies were later bred from Brandywine, Mega, and Mountaineer as a result of doubling the chromosome numbers.
L. B. TufFery of New Zealand – which has the advantage of a good climate for lilies – had bred a number of lily varieties in this class.
Other new varieties in the present group have been bred by A. J. Porter, of Parkside, Saskatchewan, Canada. The best-known are: Rosabelle – a strong, pink, saucer type, 2 feet 6 inches tall; Firebright -outward-facing, red, saucer-shaped, scented; and also late July/August-flowering Delicious – scented and bred from Isabella Preston’s Edna Kean.
The late Professor C. F. Patterson of Saskatchewan University was successful in crossing the weak,L. cernuum into this lily complex, and so introduced into the hybrids which has given rise to hybrids with pastel shades. His earlier successes, all of them winter-hardy in the cold climate of the Canadian prairie, are: White Gold and White Princess-cream-coloured blooms; Pink Charm and Edith Cecilia – pink-flowered; Dawn and Queen – dark pink; and Burnished Rose – apricot. Rosalind, a Tigrinum hybrid, and two Cernuum hybrids, Fuchsia Queen and Queen, were introduced in 1960.
It is curious that some of the Patterson Ccrnuum hybrids are sterile, while others have more than the normal 24 chromosomes of diploid varieties. Chromosome numbers in brackets are: Burnished Rose (45), Crimson Queen (46), Fuchsia Queen (42), Jasper (36), Pink Charm (38),
Rosalind (46), Rose Queen (38), White Gold (38), White Princess (42). Unfortunately, Patterson did not make it clear in his records if the increase in chromosome numbers is due to the triploid L. tigrinum cross, or to colchicine treatment.
Jan de Graaff also markets the L. cernuum hybrids under the name of Harlequin hybrids. Another particularly striking selection is offered as clones: Corsage – outward-facing, wide-open blooms in ivory and pink; Adagio – deep-red; Fuga – black-spotted orange; and Tarantella -heavily black-spotted, saffron-yellow, Turk’s Cap flowers suffused with pink. All of them grow 3 feet 3 inches-5 feet tall, and produce 15 flowers during June and July.
Royall W. Bemis, of Blackthorne Gardens, United States, introduced the Ccrnuum hybrids into the trade under the name of Rosette strain.
The English lily-breeder, the late G. W. Darby, bred a number of very beautiful and valuable Asiatic hybrids. His parents were: L. davidii Maxwill, Edna Kcan, Dark Princess; L. tigrinum var. Jlaviflorum; and L. dauricum var. Jlavum. His best hybrids are: Walter Bentley – yellow-orange with nodding flowers; Lady Bowes-Lyon – copper-red; Joseph Fletcher – dark canary-yellow; Walter Darby – strong, dark-red, outward-facing flowers; David Bowes-Lyon – light yellow; Frederick Stern – golden-yellow and heavily spotted, an inheritance from Dr S. L. Emsweller’s Dark Princess.
Following is a summary of the worthwhile and commercially available Asiatic hybrids, listed under the names of their breeders:
ISABELLA PRESTON, of Ottawa, Canada Bretida Watts: fire-red Grace Marshall: orange-red Hurricane: strong red, erect saucers Mosquito: delicate orange, pendant blooms Addington: yellow, erect Coronation: yellow, pendant blooms
JAN DE GRAAFF, of Gresham, Oregon
Cinnabar: red, erect saucers
Croesus: golden-yellow, erect
Destiny: lemon-yellow, erect
Enchantment: nasturtium-red, outward-facing
Golden Chalice hybrids: erect, saucer-shaped, golden-yellow
Harmony: orange-yellow, erect saucers, large (6’)
Joan Evans: golden-yellow, large erect saucers
Midcentury hybrids, various forms: yellow, orange, red-orange, red
Rainbow hybrids: erect saucers, golden-yellow, orange-red, mahogany-red
Tabasco: chestnut-red, erect
Corsage: Ccrnuum hybrid, with ivory and pink Martagon blooms
Paprika: blood-red, sideways-facing blooms
Prosperity: chrome-yellow, sideways-facing
Queen of Hearts: erect saucers, scarlet, 3 feet
Sunspot: erect, blood-red saucers, 16-24 inches
Talisman: red-orange, spotted, Martagon-type flowers, axil bulbils
Amber Gold: butter-yellow, pendant Martagon type
Royal Sovereign: lemon-yellow, heavily spotted
Panamint strain: Harlequin hybrids with large cream-yellow, strongly reflexed flowers
Prince Charming: erect flowers, lilac-red with ivory centre
Bronzino strain: Fiesta hybrids; dark-amber to brown
Burgundy strain: Fiesta hybrids; wine-red, Martagon-type flowers Citronella strain: Fiesta hybrids; lemon-yellow, Martagon-type flowers Mercury strain: flowers from true lilac to magenta and old rose, spotted Fiesta hybrids: Martagon-flowered; wide variety of colours (13) Harlequin hybrids: delicate pastel shades, yellowish, pink (9, 16)
DR EMSWELLER, of Bcltsville, Maryland
Brandywine: light-yellow, cognac-coloured, outward-facing
Cavalier: golden-yellow, erect saucers, 3 feet (5/)
Mega: canary-yellow, erect saucers, 2 feet
Mountaineer: lovely red, erect saucers, 3 feet
DR F. SKINNER, of Dropmore, Canada
Dunkirk: shiny red, outward-facing
Lemon Lady: lemon-yellow, erect with Martagon flowers
L. x scottiae: orange-red
: wide-open, delicate pink flowers
Azalia: cup-shaped, azalea-pink
The Duchess: saffron-yellow, wide-open
PERCY BY AM, of Toronto, Canada
Dark Eyes: deep red, outward-facing flowers
Ruby: ruby-red, erect saucers, 2 feet 6 inches
DR E. F. PALMER, of Ontario, Canada Redbird: red-spotted Martagon flowers (52) Valiant: red, erect flowers
J. c. TAYLOR, of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Waxwing: orange-yellow, outward-facing
DAVID STONE, of Wolcott, Connecticut
Nutmegger: lemon-yellow, spotted black
Connecticut Yankee: salmon-orange, Martagon flowers
A. j. PORTER, of Canada
Rosabelle: pink-red, erect flowers
Firebright: redcurrant-red, unspotted, outward-facing
Delicious: golden-yellow, late, scented
Professor PATTERSON, of Saskatoon, Canada
Apricot Glow: apricot-pink
Bronze Queen: nodding Martagon flowers, bronze-yellow
Rosalind: pink, reflexed
Rose Queen: rose-lilac, outward-facing, 6 feet
Edith Cecilia: cream and pink, Martagon-flowcred, nodding
Lemon Queen: lemon, Martagon-flowered
White Gold: apricot-pink to white, sideways-facing, 2 feet 6 inches
White Princess: apricot to cream, sideways-facing, 4 feet
Red Torch: red, sideways-facing, 4 feet
Jasper: pink, nodding, bell-shaped
DR R. c. PALMER, of British Columbia
Samarkand: dark-red, nodding, reflexed
Skyrocket: red, nodding, Martagon flowers, Davidii type
PERCY WRIGHT, of Saskatoon, Canada Nubian: black-red, Martagon flowers
C. FELDMAIER, of Pfarrkirchcn, Germany
Leuchtfeuer: Davidii-Maculatum hybrid with fiery cinnabar-red, slightly recurved, sideways-facing, saucer-shaped flowers; good inflorescence; 4 feet 3 inches; flowers early July
Ralph: redcurrant-red, erect, star-shaped; 4 feet 3 inches-4 feet 6 inches; late July (20)
Roter Prinz: Davidii-Maculatum hybrid with brick-red, slightly recurved, half-erect, saucer-shaped blooms in racemose inflorescence; 5 feet -July (54)
Sonnentiger: very flat, broad-pctalled, Aurelian-yellow flowers; 4 feet; July (60)