Category Archives: Plant Biology


THE lives of Plants and Animals which, perhaps, at first sight seem so entirely separate and individual are, actually, most intimately connected. The connection varies both as regards degree and endurance in time.

When two individuals live together in such intimate connection as to appear one, their union is known as symbiosis. Symbiosis. Apparently each member of the union benefits by the close partnership.

Among lowly plants a very perfect case of symbiosis is seen in Lichens. A Lichen is a community of Algae and Fungi living in such complete union that a Lichen expanse appears as one plant.

Such a union may occur between plants that differ widely in complexity. The invest- ment of Beech roots with a mycorrhiza-forming Fungus affords an example of such a partnership .

Just as there may be sym- biotic union between plant and plant, so may there also be symbiosis between two animals.

The Sea Anemone is a Coelenterate, closely related to Hydra. There are certain Sea Anemones that fix themselves firmly to the shells of Hermit Crabs . As the Crab moves the Anemone is carried from place to place. In all probability it is thus brought into regions of more plentiful food. Certainly the Crab benefits because it is difficult for its enemies to distinguish it, overshadowed as it is by the body and tentacles of the Anemone it carries.

Another Coelenterate, Hydra viridis , shelters numbers of unicellular Algae. Here is a case of symbiosis not between plant and plant, nor between animal and animal, but actually between animal and plant. The Algae are within the animal cells and undoubtedly help in the nutrition of Hydra by carrying on the work of photosynthesis.

There are, however, more fleeting relationships than this between animals and plants. A sort of temporary symbiosis may obtain.

In pollination the association of plant and animal is usually very fleeting, but it is certainly advantageous. The insect is fed, and through its agency the plant benefits, for pollination is followed by fertilisation.

In some few cases of seed-dispersal, too, there is a certain gain to the animal. The Ant is better off for harvesting those seeds whose caruncles are nutritious . The seeds benefit by germinating away from their place of origin. Generally, however, in cases of dispersal the animal is an unconscious, or even unwilling, agent – possibly suffering inconvenience because of the fruits that have attached themselves to some part of his body.

Plants and animals gain mutually as a result of the gaseous interchange between the individual and the environment. If plants lived in a world of their own they could maintain a satisfactory balance of gases for their physiological needs – carbon dioxide is, however, made more readily available for them because of animal respiration. The animal gains greatly by the volume of oxygen returned to the environment by plants in photo-synthesis.

The balance of advantage is decidedly on the side of the animals. No animal can live independently of plants, unless it be some primitive organism like Euglena, which contains chlorophyll, and therefore reaches a degree of independence.

Animals are unable to act upon the inorganic constituents of earth and air and build up organic compounds – but the plant can, in its green tissues, carry on such analytical and synthetic processes that, from these inorganic substances, complex foods result. An animal surrounded by such substances is helpless. It is entirely dependent upon the plant for food.

In our day, more than ever before, the dependence of animal-life upon plant-life is realised. Without vitamins our physiological processes would go entirely astray and our whole development would suffer. They are absolutely indispensable to normal animal life. For their formation they are dependent upon light. It is in plant-tissues, through the agency of light, that these all-important controlling forces are produced.


IT was the great French biologist, Lamarck, who died in 1829, who first proposed the term Biology for the Science of Living Things. As living things are either Animals or Mints, biology must perforce concern itself with the study of these – and this not in any limited sense, but from the widest possible standpoint.Continue Reading

Fungi Biology

Fungi are very simple in structure and are characterised by the complete absence of chlorophyll. It is this lack that determines their mode of life. If they are not parasites, getting their food from a living host, then they are saprophytes, living either upon a dead, or upon a non-living, organic substance. The plant-body ofContinue Reading


LOOKING on the seamy side of life, much is disclosed that is harsh, cruel, and ugly. Nature, in the widest sense of the term, is not beautiful in all her moods, and one of the most unpleasant phases is found in a study of parasitism. Among living things, at different evolutionary stages individuals are foundContinue Reading


DECAY is one of the first necessities of life – without it life would soon cease. The world’s surface would become covered with a vast collection of dead bodies and the amount of food available for the plants and animals that still lived would become less and less until finally none would remain. This isContinue Reading

Minerals that plants need to grow

It has now been established that the substances that a plant needs are suitable compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. Small amounts of other substances are also found to be beneficial. Since the protoplasm of which living things are composed is made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus,Continue Reading


THE seed which, in one way or another, reaches the ground to germinate, has a protective coat, or testa. Within this is the embryo, or rudimentary plant. A reserve food supply is absolutely essential for the use of the embryo when first it begins to grow. In some seeds this store is contained in theContinue Reading


THE essential whorls of a flower are the andrcecium and the gyncecium. Without these a flowering plant would be faced with the alternative of extinction or immortality. When corolla and calyx are present they play a subsidiary, but none the less very important, part in the work of pollination. Fertilisation follows pollination, and this actContinue Reading


RELATIONSHIPS in Flowering Plants and their inclusion in Natural Orders, or Families, as they are now more generally named, depend entirely upon the structure of the flowers. It may happen that all the plants of one family agree in their general morphological characteristics – all the plants in Crucifer, the Wallflower Family, are, for example,Continue Reading


IN nursing homes and hospitals all plants and cut flowers are removed from the wards before nightfall, because of the interchange of gases that takes place between green plants and the atmosphere. Always, every moment of the day and night, a plant is using up atmospheric oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide, for respiration neverContinue Reading