Cimicifuga- Bugbane, Snake-root

Little known perennials, originally occurring in forests.


Especially under trees, that is, in partial shade, possibly in combination with monkshood and other forest plants. Also suitable for sunny borders, provided the soil is really damp.


The soil must be nutritious and contain humus; the plants will not thrive in sandy soil. If they are planted under trees, the soil must first be improved; in dry weather, watering is essential.


Division is the easiest method; they may also be grown from fresh seed.

Cimicifuga dahurica: Height to 200 cm; white flowers in large densely branched spikes in early to mid autumn. Cimicifuga ramosa: Height 100-150 cm; white flowers in long, branched spikes in early to mid summer. Cimicifuga simplex: Height to 125 cm; white flowers in early to mid autumn. ‘Armleuchter’ is a very fine strain.

Clematis Growing Guide

The best known members of this large genus are the large-flowered climbing shrubs, but there are many others. The wild or semi-wild small-flowered climbers are particularly attractive; there are also a number of fine herbaceous plants.


Climbers are nearly always trained on house walls, but they may also be used for covering pergolas, fences and other garden partitions – the wild Virgin’s bower, Clematis vitalba, being particularly suitable for this purpose. The herbaceous forms can be used successfully in the border. Most species tolerate both sun and partial shade, but the foot of the plant must always be in the shade. It is not necessary to use an ugly tile for this purpose, as is so often done; a small evergreen shrub looks better and will at the same time keep the soil cool.


The large-flowered hybrids are particularly grateful for some soil improvement. Near a house wall the soil usually consists of sand and rubble; it is therefore advisable to make a very large hole, fill it with peat, rotted manure, Jeaf

Chrysanthemum Growing Guide

There are several types of garden chrysanthemums. We distinguish annual species, non-winterhardy perennials , and hardy perennials for borders and for cutting.


Annual species chiefly in annual borders and for cutting. Border chrysanthemums almost solely as bedding plants or for cutting; hardy perennials in borders.


The soil must not be too heavy and should preferably contain some lime.


Annuals from seed, border chrysanthemums from cuttings, perennials by division or from seed.

Annual species

Chrysanthemum carinatum: Height 40-60 cm, flowers in summer, flowers being white, pale or deep yellow, copper coloured or brown ringed, all with a darker centre. There are double-flowered forms as well.

Chrysanthemum parthenium, syn Matricaria parthe-noides: Height 40-80 cm, flowering season early summer to early autumn. Yellow centre with white ray florets. Usually available in double varieties, such as ‘Golden Ball’. Border chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemum frutescens, marguerite: Height 30-100 cm, small white or golden-yellow flowers. A well known bedding plant, available in late spring. The form with bluish foliage is called Chrysanthemum anethifolium. Chrysanthemum hybrids, also known as C. indicum and C. koreanum: These are the well known cut flowers sold in large numbers by florists. Innumerable colours and flower shapes. Can be grown in the garden, but will survive the winter only under glass. Increase from cuttings. Hardy perennials

Chrysanthemum coccineum syn Pyrethrum roseum. These Pyrethrum hybrids, as they are usually called, grow to 80-120 cm and in mid summer produce scarlet or yellow flowers. Rather delicate for the garden, but often used for cutting.

Chrysanthemum lacustre syn Chrysanthemum maximum, Leucanthemum maximum, Shasta daisy: Height 50-100 cm, flowering season early summer to early autumn; flowers white, single or double. An excellent border plant. Chrysanthemum ruhellum syn Chrysanthemum zawads-kii: Height 80-100 cm, pale yellow, pink or deep-red flowers in autumn.

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