The description of species is a little more detailed than that for hybrids. They are much more diverse in shape and size and they come from different parts of the world. Species need little pruning and can be left to ramble at will through hedges, trees, etc., but where there are confined spaces such as on walls, then some pruning is sometimes necessary. The early-flowering varieties such as C. alpina, C. macropetala and C. montana need no pruning but can if necessary be cut back directly after flowering, which will be in May or early June, thus giving them plenty of time to grow during the summer. The later-flowering varieties can be cut back hard, treating them as Jackmaniis, but here again if space is no object they can be left to gracefully garland everything within their reach.

C. afoltata — ‘The rush-stemmed clematis’, so called because it looks exactly like a reed. The stems are slender with hardly any leaves which are extremely small. The flowers are produced at the leaf axil in groups of from two to six. They are small tubular-shaped, pale yellow, having a daphne scent, and are produced in profusion in April and May. A native of New Zealand it needs a warm wall in England and grows to a height of about 8-12 feet.

C. alpina — ‘The Alpine Virgin’s Bower’, Virgin’s Bower being the common name of clematis. Alpine gives its natural habitat, the Alps of Southern Europe. The flowers are satiny-blue, four-sepalled about 1-1 I^ inches wide with whitish petaloid stamens and hang downward like small bells, produced in March and April. Leaves are long, doubly ternate with coarse-toothed ovate leaflets. The flowers develop into attractive seedheads during the summer. The alpina varieties are actually atragenes, very closely allied to clematis and now

listed under clematis. They grow to a height of approximately 6-8 feet. The following are varieties of C. alpina:

C. alpina Columbine — Pale blue.

C. alpina Pamela Jackman — Rich, mid-blue.

C. alpina Ruby — Rosy-red.

C. alpina White Moth — Double white.

C. armandii — A handsome evergreen variety, with lalrge glossy tri-foliate leaves, 5-6 inches long. Waxy-white flowers 1-2 inches in diameter, produced in clusters at the leaf axils in March and April. Grows to a height of 20 feet. Is quite hardy near the coasts, but inland needs the protection of a south or west wall.

C. armandii Apple Blossom — A pale pink variety.

C. calycina — ‘The fern-leaved clematis’ so called because its evergreen leaves are fern-like, dark green in the summer they turn to a bronzy hue in winter. The bell-shaped flowers, about 1 inch in diameter, are produced in profusion in mild spells from January to March. They are pale yellow in colour with red freckles on the inside. This variety does not always flower until it is well established, which is sometimes two or three years. Comes from the Balearic Islands and is sometimes called

C. balearica.

C. campaniflora — ‘The harebell clematis’. A native of Portugal, a vigorous grower with divided pinnate leaves. Dainty bell-shaped pale blue flowers 1 inch in diameter are freely produced in late summer.

C. chrysocoma — ‘The Hairy clematis’, so called because the very young shoots are covered with minute golden-brown hairs. A member of the montana family, grows to a height of about 20 feet and produces masses of pale pink flowers about 2 inches in diameter in May and June. Will sometimes flower on the young wood during the summer.

C. cirrhosa — ‘The Evergreen clematis’. Fern-like glossy evergreen foliage with pure white bell-shaped flowers up to 2 inches wide, produced in mild spells from January to March. Will sometimes flower during the summer as well. Grows to about 20 feet.

C. davidiana .

C. eriostemon — One of the first hybrids ever raised about 1820 by Mr. Henderson of St. John’s Wood, London, and was a cross between

C. integrifolia and C. viticella. An herbaceous climber flowering freely from July to October with nodding purple flowers 2 inches in diameter. Grows t6 about 10-16 feet.

C.fargesii — A very vigorous variety, similar to The Old Man’s Beard of the hedgerows. Produces masses of small white flowers from June to September, followed by feathery seedheads in the autumn.

C. flammula — ‘The Fragrant Virgin’s Bower’. Masses of tiny white four-sepalled flowers in the autumn, scenting the whole garden with a vanilla fragrance, followed by silky silver-grey seedheads. A vigorous variety growing to 20 or 30 feet. Small dark green, almost evergreen foliage.

C: flammula rubra marginata — A variety with the flowers edged with rosy-purple as the name suggest. Sweetly scented.

C. florida bicolor — A rare and very lovely clematis from Japan often confused with the Passion Flower. Creamy white flowers 3-4 inches in diameter with a rosette-shaped centre of rich purple petaloid stamens, produced from June to August. A difficult variety to grow outside in England, but ideal in a cold conservancy or in a warm sheltered garden. Grows to 6-8 feet.

C. florida alba plena — A variety with a white centre of petaloid stamens.

C. fusca — An unusual variety with small urn-shaped brownish-purple flowers, the sepals being very thick, flowering duringjune and July. Grows to about 10-12 feet.

C. grata — A vigorous climber with large coarse leaves growing to 20-30 feet. Ideal for rambling through trees or shrubs. Small bluish-white flowers, scented, appear during late summer.

C. heracleifolia Cote d’Azur — Herbaceous variety with large coarse leaves, producing clusters of small pale blue hyacinth-like flowers from the leaf axils in August and September. Grows to about 2V6 feet. Prune hard in winter.

C. heracleifolia Davidiana — A similar variety with clusters of sweetly scented blue flowers in

August and September. Grows to about 3 feet. Introduced from China in 1894 by l’Abbe

David. Prune hard.

C. heracleifolia Wyevale produces larger flowers than the type of a deep hyacinth-blue and sweetly scented in August and September. Grows to about 3 feet. Prune hard.

C. integrifolia — Herbaceous variety with deep blue nodding flowers 1 -2 inches in diameter with simple, entire, ovate leaves. Makes a thick bushy plant about 1-2 feet in height. Flowers from

June to September. Prune hard.

C. integrifolia Durandii. A taller variety with larger rich indigo-blue flowers deeply ribbed, 3-4 inches in diameter, from June to September. Grows to 6-8 feet and needs tying to its support or growing through a shrub. Prune hard.

C. integrifolia Hendersonii. A variety with larger bell-shaped deep blue flowers than the type.

Makes a plant of about 2 feet. Flowers from June to September. Prune hard.

C. integrifolia Olgae — A variety with clear pale blue twisted sepals, very sweetly scented.

Grows to about 2 feet and flowers from June to September. Prune hard.

C. jouiniana — A semi-herbaceous variety with large coarse leaves and masses of pale lilac-blue small flowers in the autumn. An ideal variety for ground cover, grows to 10-20 feet.

C. lanuginosa — ‘The woolly-leaved clematis’. The original large-flowered specie, first brought to England from China in 1850 and the parent of many of our large-flowering hybrids.

Large pale lilac-blue flowers, 6-8 inches in diameter, with prominent white stamens produced from June to October. Grows to 10-20 feet.

C. macropetala — ‘The Downy clematis’. A delightful specie from China with lavender-blue nodding flowers 2-3 inches in diameter and having two or three rows of sepals, giving the impression of a ballet skirt. Masses of flowers in April and May. An ideal variety for a north-facing wall, grows to 8-12 feet.

C. macropetala Maidwell Hall — Deep blue.

C. macropetala Markhamii — Lavender-pink.

C. macropetala Rosy O’Grady — Pink with long pointed sepals.

C. montana — ‘The Mountain of Great Indian clematis’. Vigorous, easy to grow variety, with masses of white or pink flowers 2-3 inches in diameter in May and June. Ideal for covering eyesores, trees, sheds, garages, etc. First introduced to England from India in 1831 by

Countess Amherst. The following are some of the different varieties:

C. montana Alexander — Creamy-white flowers and yellow stamens, very sweetly scented.

C. montana Elizabeth — Soft pale-pink with yellow stamens, sweetly scented.

C. montana grandiflora — Pure white with yellow stamens.

C. montana Pink Perfection — Clear pink with stamens.

C. montana rubens — Deep pink with golden stamens and bronzy foliage.

C. montana rubens Picton’s variety — Rich strawberry-pink with golden stamens.

C. montana tetrarose — Lilac-rose and golden stamens, larger variety 3-4 inches in diameter.

C. montana Wilsonii — Creamy-white with twisted sepals and yellow stamens. A late variety, flowering from June to July.

C. orientalis — An attractive variety from Tibet with finely cut grey-green foliage and unique nodding orange-coloured flowers and brown stamens 1-2 inches in diameter. Flowering from

June to October. Often called the ‘Orange Peel clematis’ because of its very thick sepals.

Grows to 20 feet.

C. orientalis Burford variety — A vigorous variety with finely cut foliage and a profusion of deep yellow nodding flowers from August to October. Grows to 10-15 feet.

C. paniculata — ‘The Sweet Autumn clematis of America’. Masses of very small white flowers in the autumn with prominent off-white stamens. A vigorous climber, making a plant of 20 feet and more. Very late in flowering in England so must have a sunny position.

C. pitcheri — Urn-shaped flowers of a purple-blue borne singly on 3-inch stems from July to September. Grows to about 12 feet.

C. recta — An ideal variety for the herbaceous border, makes a thick bushy plant with strong 3-foot-high stems surmounted by panicles of sweetly-scented small white flowers from

June to August. Prune hard.

C. rehderiana — ‘The nodding Virgin’s Bower’. Also known as C. nutans. A vigorous variety with coarse untidy foliage, but attractive small primrose-yellow tubular-shaped nodding flowers with recurving sepals and a heavenly cowslip scent in the autumnl Grows to about feet.

C. serratifolia — Pale yellow nodding flowers with purple stamens. August to October. Grows to 20 feet.

C. spooneri — A strong-growing variety of the montana group. Pure white flowers with prominent yellow stamens produced in great profusion in May and June. Grows to 20-30 feet.

C. spooneri rosea — An attractive apple-blossom pink variety with attractive winged sepals and yellow stamens.

C. tangutica Gravetye — ‘The Russian Virgin’s Bower’. Masses of deep yellow lantern-shaped small flowers with brown stamens from July to October. The early flowers quickly develop into attractive silky seedheads which mingle unusually with the later flowers. Grows to 20 feet or more.

C. texensis — The Scarlet Clematis, the Leather Flower. A unique semi-herbaceous variety from

Texas, U.S.A., with scarlet urn or pitcher-shaped small flowers about an inch long with thick leathery sepals, reflexed at the tips. The actual type is not available in England, but the following varieties are obtainable:

C. texensis Duchess of Albany — Deep pink bell-shaped flowers with a red band in each sepal.

Floweringjuly to October. Grows to a height of 8-12 feet.

C. texensis Etoile Rose — Quite the most charming of the texensis varieties. Bell-shaped flowers of cerise-pink with silver margins. July to October. Height, 8-12 feet.

C. texensis Gravetye Beauty — Crimson-red bell-shaped flowers which open wider than the other varieties. July to October. Height, 8-12 feet.

C. texensis Sir Trevor Lawrence — Deep carmine urn-shaped flowers. July to October. Height, 8-12 feet.

C. vedrariensis Hidcote variety — A specie of the montana group, flowering in May and June with deep pink flowers 2 inches in diameter.

C. vedrariensis Highdown — A cross between

C. chrysocoma and C. montana rubens. A good pink with quite large flowers 2-3 inches in diameter. Flowering in profusion during May and June and growing to a height of 20 feet or more.

C. viorona — A species from the U.S.A. with small globular flowers of very thick fleshy-pink sepals. Grows to 8-10 feet. Flowers, July and August.

C. vitalba — The Old Man’s Beard, Traveller’s Joy and many other names that are given to the wild clematis of the English hedgerows. Small greeny-white flowers in August followed by masses of feathery seedheads used in Harvest Festival decorations.

C. viticella — ‘The Vine Bower’. The Spanish wild variety which was introduced to England in 1569. Small purple saucer-shaped flowers hanging downward. Vigorous and free-flowering, growing to a height of 20-30 feet, and flowering freely from July to October. The following are varieties of C. viticella:

C. viticella abundance — Light wine-red with deep red veins.

C. viticella alba luxurians — Creamy-white with green-tipped sepals.

C. viticella Little Nell — Mauve with a creamy-white bar.

C. viticella Minuet — Cream with sepals edged with mauve and held on long stems.

C. viticella purpurea plena — Blue-purple double flowers.

C. viticella purpurea plena elegans — Violet-purple double flowers.

C. viticella Royal Velour — Deep velvety-purple.

C. viticella rubra — Deep crimson flowers with brown stamens.

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