These are trees which have been artificially dwarfed, sometimes to a height of only 3 in., by growing in small china or other highly glazed pots and containers, thereby restricting the root system. In the first instance they are probably wild plants or irregular-shaped pieces of trees which have been twisted and pruned until they reach the desired shape. These trees should remain outdoors as much as possible, since they are quite hardy and if kept too long in a living room will often lose some of their leaves. The roots must not be allowed to dry out but watering is only needed when the soil is fairly dry. Conifers, beeches, oaks, maples, sycamores, etc., are a few of the trees which can be successfully dwarfed. Full details of the Japanese method of dwarfing are given in books devoted to the subject.

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