These are composts based on simple formulas devised by the John Innes Horticultural Institution for standard seed and potting composts. See COMPOST. The John Innes Horticultural Institution is located at Bayfordbury in Hertfordshire and is supported by a grant-in-aid from the Agricultural Research Council. It is concerned with horticultural research, including the breeding of garden plants and genetics. Nurserymen, market gardeners, fruit growers and amateurs generally have benefited very considerably from the work of the Institution. For example, it has been proved that many varieties of apples, pears, cherries etc., fail to crop or do not give a proper yield because they are not planted in the right company. Different varieties that will pollinate each other must be planted together to ensure a full crop. See under the various tree fruits such as APPLE, PEAR and so on.

New varieties of apples, cherries, blackberries and other fruits have been raised and are available from nurserymen, e.g. the dessert apple Merton Worcester, the sweet cherry Merton Heart and the blackberry Merton Thornless.

A National Rose Species Collection has been established at Bayfordbury and the merits of different rose stocks are also being investigated. The breeding of disease-resistant apples is also in progress.

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