These, once planted, grow on, yearly renewing themselves by spreading, by offsets, or new growth from base, the outer ones of which have most vitality. Some are increased by division, some develop separate little plants which can be teased out of the clump easier by washing out the ball of soil. Others are increased by cuttings or layering Many are grown from seed by amateurs as a high proportion of worthwhile plants may be obtained. Sow from spring to early autumn, according to individual requirement either in a fairly sheltered, sunny position outdoors or in boxes in a cold frame. Early thinning is advisable, the seedlings being transferred to their permanent quarters in October or early spring. It is wise to get new stock every three years, throwing away die old plants. A herbaceous border is usually composed of perennials so situated that the taller specimens are mostly at the back of the border and due discretion used to group or harmonise colours, and to consider flowering periods so as to get a succession of bloom.

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