Shrubs and climbers are always planted for years and often for permanency so the preparation of the ground should be thorough. In particular difficult weeds such as nettle, docks, ground elder, couch grass and bindweed should be removed, for though it is possible to deal with these later on with herbicides, it is much more time consuming and expensive then than making a clean sweep at the outset. If the sites for the shrubs are dug about 18 in. deep, it will be possible to pick out most of the weed, but to make doubly sure the weeds can be treated with a suitable herbicide a few weeks before digging commences, so that they are already more or less dead when cultivation starts. If you do choose this course, be sure to use a herbicide with a wide spectrum of effectiveness, since some kinds only kill weeds of a particular type, and also one that no harmful residues in the soil. Paraquat is very suitable for this purpose, but since it operates through the it is most effective in fairly warm, sunny weather when growth is active.
If well-rotted manure or gardenis available, this can be mixed with the soil while it is being prepared at the rate of 5 to 6 lb. Per sq. yd. Peat at 2 to 4 lb. Per sq. yd. Will improve the texture of both heavy and light soils, and bonemeal (applied while wearing gloves) at 4 oz. per sq. yd. Will provide a steady source of for the first few months.