T. The elms are very long-lived. They flourish on all soils and in exposed positions. Ulmus procera (campestris), the English elm, is widespread in the south and Midlands. It ultimately reaches 80 to 100 ft., and as with all elms, the wood is exceedingly brittle. U. glabra (montana) is the wych, Scotch or mountain elm. The trunks of really old trees may have a girth of 50 ft. Elms may be increased by seed sown outdoors as soon as ripe.

UMBILICUS A genus of succulents (occasionally referred to as navelwort) which includes the hardy Umbilicus chrysanthus (Rossularia pallida) resembling a houseleek or sempervivum with bell-shaped, creamy-yellow flowers on 6 in. stems. Give a sunny well-drained position on the rockery. Increase by detaching the offsets in spring.

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